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AN34
Preface

The series of experiments included in this Laboratory Manual provide an introduction to the various techniques that are currently used to study nuclear science and a framework to help the student learn. The methodology, list of equipment, and step-by-step instructions that are needed are included in each experiment, together with sufficient reference material and theoretical information about the experiment to help the student interpret results.
ORTEC has tried to consider all major disciplines that are involved in nuclear science. These include physics, chemistry, biology, radiopharmacy, nuclear engineering, and other specialized nuclear technologies. By consulting many sources, ORTEC has determined which of these experiments are most appropriate to each discipline; the sources include university professors, appropriate texts, experimental manuals, and the published recommendations of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other government agencies. From these studies, ORTEC recommends the following basic experiment groups for each of the major disciplines:
Physics
Chemistry
Biology
Radiopharmacy
Nuclear Engineering
Nuclear Technology
1 through 21, and 23 through 26.
1 through 6, and 12, 17, 23, 24, and 26.
1 through 7, and 12, 17, 22, 23, and 24.
1 through 6, and 17, 22, 23, and 24.
1 through 9, and 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, and 23 through 26.
1 through 6, and 12, 17, 22, 23, and 24.
The series of experiments that are appropriate to nuclear technology are also appropriate for nuclear technician training. Other combinations of experiments can be derived for use in other fields of interest such as environmental studies, medical research, quality control and many more in the rapidly growing list of nuclear applications.
Most of the 26 experiments are divided into parts that can be completed in an average time of 30 to 45 minutes and can be performed independently. For example, Experiment 3 deals with gamma-ray spectroscopy and includes Experiments 3.1 through 3.10. All experiments that are to be made, however, should be done in sequence. The experiments are provided for educational purposes and can be duplicated for class use as desired.
A complete nuclear laboratory, or one that is designed to serve a given area, can be set up with the aid of the information that is furnished in this Laboratory Manual.
ORTEC hopes that this manual will benefit you in your Nuclear Science Program.
Acknowledgements
ORTEC wishes to thank the author, Professor Jerome L. Duggan, Texas State University, for writing these experiments and for his continued support of this effort from rough draft to publication. ORTEC also wishes to thank university professors all over the world for their comments and suggestions.
The author wishes to thank Professor Dollard Desmarais of the University of Alberta, Canada, for his assistance with Experiments 21, 25, and 26. He also wishes to thank the many university professors throughout the world who have performed the experiments with their students in the first two editions of this manual and were kind enough to send their comments and suggestions to us for consideration in our revisions.

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